The reason globalisation has not worked is because there has not been enough of it. If countries, including the rich industrialised ones, got rid of all their protectionist measures, everyone would benefit from the resulting increase in international trade: it's simple economics. If unnecessary government regulation can be eliminated, and investors and corporations can act freely, the result will be an overall increase in prosperity as the "invisible hand" of the market does its work.
Tell that to countries that have followed this route. I doubt many people in Argentina would agree. Many developing countries have done exactly what free market evangelists such as the International Monetary Fund told them to and have failed to see the benefits. The truth is that no industrialised society developed through such policies. American businesses were protected from foreign competition in the 19th century, as were companies in more recent "success stories" such as South Korea. Faith in the free market contradicts history and statistical evidence.
You're looking at the wrong statistics. In most cases, low-income countries are the ones that have not been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others, partly because of their chosen policies and partly because of factors outside their control. The plain truth is that no country, least of all the poorest, can afford to remain isolated from the world economy.
Even if this were true, what about the other unwanted effects of globalisation? The power of corporations and the global financial markets adversely affect the sovereignty of countries by limiting governments' ability to determine tax and exchange rate policies as well as their ability to impose regulations on companies' behaviour. Countries are now involved in a "race to the bottom" to attract and retain investment; multinational corporations are taking advantage of this to employ sweatshop labour and then skim off huge profits while paying very little tax.
First, governments' sovereignty has not been compromised. The power of the biggest corporations is nothing compared with that of government. Can a company raise taxes or an army? No. Second, nations are not involved in a "race to the bottom". Figures last year showed that governments around the world are on average collecting slightly more taxes in real terms than they were 10 years earlier. And the argument that workers in poorer countries are being exploited is hard to support. They are clearly better off working for multinationals. If they weren't, they wouldn't work for them. In fact research shows that wages paid by foreign firms to workers in poorer countries are about double the local manufacturing wage.
But what about these so-called multilateral organisations like the IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation? I don't remember electing them, so what gives them the right to say how countries run their own affairs? Isn't it obvious that these organisations only serve the interests of the US and to a lesser extent the other rich countries? Their only role is to peddle the neoliberal orthodoxy - the Washington consensus - that only impoverishes the poorest nations and maximises the profits of multinationals.
It is only through organisations such as these that the less developed countries have a chance to improve their situations. The IMF is there to bail out countries that get into financial difficulties. Governments go to the IMF because the alternative is much worse. If the IMF and its sister organisation, the World Bank, were shut down, the flow of resources to developing countries would diminish, leaving the developing world even worse off. The WTO is a different kind of organisation and is run on a one-country-one-vote basis with no regard for the economic power of each nation; every single member has a veto. In addition, no country can be compelled to obey a WTO rule that it opposed in the first place.
Our world is shrinking every day – how do you like it?
From the telegraph to the internet, from rails to jumbo jets, advances in communication and travel technology have connected people across the globe. Some of these connections have promoted prosperity while others have been problematic. For better or worse, globalization is a complex topic, and if you’re writing a pros and cons essay about it, you’ll want to make sure you find good sources to back up your ideas.
In this blog post, I’ll provide 20globalization articles to help you get started.
But before we dive in, let’s focus on some key considerations for writing about this topic.
Much Ado About a Complex Issue
So you want to write about globalization? Writing about complex issues means that you have to go the extra mile in order to write an equally complex and well-crafted essay. A pros and cons essay requires an argumentative approach, so it’s a good idea to first know the purpose behind your approach before hammering out a first draft.
The Argumentative/Research Approach:
Think about a part of globalization that interests you. What major question do you have about this part of the topic? Trying to answer this question is where you start your research. The answer that you come up with and will support throughout the essay will be your thesis.
Otherwise, you may already have some ideas about the topic and want to persuade your audience to accept a claim you make. This claim (or thesis) also needs to be supported by evidence, which is why you’ll still need to research the topic.
Pro or Con?
Time to apply your critical thinking skills! While your paper will focus on both the pro and con sides of the globalization debate, just make sure you avoid the pitfalls of being too simplistic or vague.
For example, if you approach one of the problems with globalization, you don’t want to just write, “Globalization is bad.” Instead, you want your thesis to dig into a specific part of globalization’s context. A better thesis might look like this:
Increased globalization has created a large outsourcing market that attracts U.S. companies with the prospect of cheap labor, but in turn, quality industrial production has vastly declined due to lax regulations.
See how specific that is? Give your audience both a specific problem and the reason that problem is significant, and you’ll be off to a great start!
Knowing your approach and having a solid thesis are both important for a strong start, but you also need to support your essay with quality sources to help you get to the finish line. Depending on your instructor’s expectations, you can use both popular and scholarly sources. Whatever the case, you want to make sure your research is credible. If you need some extra help, try applying the CRAAP test to each of your sources before you decide to use them.
Okay – no more messing around! Following are 20globalization articles to help you get started in supporting your pros and cons essay. I’ve organized these into three categories for you: “Pro,” “Neutral,” and “Anti.” You can use neutral articles for either a “pro” or “con” approach because they are more informative and address both globalization’s positive and negative effects.
I’ve also included an MLA citation for each article. If you use it, make sure to change the access date! Or, if your assignment requires it, you might want to use an APA citation instead.
5 Pro-Globalization Articles
Pro-Globalization Article 1:“What Globalization Really Means”
This article discusses how Peter Drucker’s claims about globalization’s evolution have become reality. Its author, Rick Wartzman, looks at how major global corporations have improved economic status and stability for other countries while promoting an overall stronger globalized market. This article specifically covers the rise of Bo Andersson in the global auto industry and how his involvement has led to greater manufacturing accountability and profits.
Wartzman, Rick. “What Globalization Really Means”TIME.com. Time, Inc., 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015.
Pro-Globalization Article 2:“Global flows in a digital age”
This article highlights a research study conducted by economists at the McKinsey Global Institute. The research favors globalization’s contribution to the world GDP and argues why it is necessary to maintain this trend. There is useful chart detailing various countries’ global flows and a link to the full 180-page research study in the article.
Manyika, James, et al. “Global Flows in a Digital Age.” McKinsey.com. McKinsey & Company, Apr. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.
Pro-Globalization Article 3:“Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared”
Ben Wildavsky, a senior scholar in Research and Policy at the Kauffman Foundation, talks about why academic globalization should be encouraged, particularly because an increased global intelligence is beneficial for the entire world. Wildavsky balances his argument by first addressing his audience’s concerns about import education and export talent issues, so this article will be useful if you’re looking to provide solid pathos to your paper.
Wildavsky, Ben. “Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared.” Brookings.edu. The Brookings Institution, 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 28 May 2015.
Pro-Globalization Article 4:“The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’”
Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson provide interesting and unique insights about how globalization, particularly in sports, can promote a greater “global democracy.” While much of this article focuses on the positive cultural impacts of globalization, rather than economic ones, the information favors global expansion and builds a strong case that is aptly reinforced with sound resources.
Giulianotti, Richard, and Roland Roberts. “The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’.” The British Journal of Sociology 55.4 (2004): 545-568. Web. 28 May 2015.
Pro-Globalization Article 5:“Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries”
This article offers a solid overview of how globalization has increased income in certain countries through industrialization and trade. While the author, Nigel Hogan, recognizes that there are issues in wealth equality for different countries, he puts up a sound argument backed by strong sources that globalization can be seen as a force of economic good.
Hogan, Nigel. “Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries.” E-International Relations Students. E-International Relations, 9 June 2012. Web. 28 May 2015.
5 Neutral Globalization Articles
Neutral Globalization Article 1:“The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization”
Forbes contributor, Panos Mourdoukoutas, offers an interesting introduction to the ups and downs of globalization’s economic effects. The article is organized into concise paragraphs that break down the benefits and problems associated with globalization and the world market, and Mourdoukoutas also projects what happens when the issues with globalization become prevalent.
Mourdoukoutas, Panos. “The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization.” Forbes. Forbes.com LLC., 13 Apr. 2015. Web. 28 May 2015.
Neutral Globalization Article 2:“Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?”
Financial specialist, Lisa Smith, takes an informative approach to how globalization affects different social classes in both host and outsource countries. He provides useful comprehensive links to definitions of key terms such as international trade and outsourcing. There are also links to other articles that deal with similar topics.
Smith, Lisa. “Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?” Investopedia. Investopedia, LLC., 28 Jan. 2007. Web. 28 May 2015.
Neutral Globalization Article 3:“Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?”
This scholarly article does a great job of scrutinizing both sides of the globalization argument. It analyzes and makes strong conclusions about data, particularly regarding the supposed rise and fall of world poverty rates. Whether you’re for or against any aspect of globalization, this article can help you examine the data more closely and better understand the margin of error therein.
Wade, Robert Hunter. “Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?” World Development 32.4 (2004): 567–589. ScienceDirect. Web. 28 May 2015.
Neutral-Globalization Article 4:“The Issue of Globalization – An Overview”
In this Congressional Research Service report, Gary J. Wells provides a thorough introduction to globalization that is purely informative but has useful information for either side of the argument. Wells discusses globalization’s accomplishments as well as its failures, providing sound evidence and many footnotes that can be useful for your own research.
Wells, Gary J. “The Issue of Globalization — An Overview.” Congressional Research Service Reports and Issue Briefs. Cornell U. ILR School, 1 May 2001. Web. 28 May 2015.
Neutral-Globalization Article 5:“Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance”
Published by the The Journal of Globalization and Development, this article provides interesting insight into globalization that recognizes it as being necessary but ultimately problematic. Instead of merely taking a “pro-con” approach, the author, Jose Antonio Ocampo, focuses on how improving globalization can provide an effective approach to worldwide governance. He also uses many useful sources that you may want to explore.
Ocampo, Jose Antonio. “Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance.” Journal of Globalization and Development 1.1 (2010): 1-29. The Berkeley Electronic Press. Web. 28 May 2015.
5 Anti-Globalization Articles
Anti-Globalization Article 1:“Globalization and Unemployment”
Foreign Affairs contributor, Michael Spence, covers how integrating markets negatively affects U.S. employment rates. While this article is useful for your stance against globalization, it provides a fair assessment of the issue as well. Spence also considers measures that the U.S. could apply to make globalization more sustainable, which is great for compromising with your audience in your argument.
Spence, Michael. “Globalization and Unemployment.” Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 02 June 2011. Web. 28 May 2015.
Anti-Globalization Article 2:“The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right”
Noah Smith, an assistant professor of finance at Stony Brook University, writes about the problems of the World Trade Organization’s globalization efforts. Smith covers the historical aspect of market globalization from 1999 to the present. The article is thorough and avoids bias by noting that while globalization has improved worldwide equality and poverty issues, the WTO could have implemented the process much more efficiently and ethically.
Smith, Noah. “The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 06 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.
Anti-Globalization Article 3:“Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast”
In this New York Times article, economic writer Eduardo Porter discusses the problems of globalization and why these may cause a decline in global as opposed to regional business. That said, Porter also maintains a well-balanced argument by offering research that suggests globalization will continue to remain valid as countries have become dependent on this system. He cites important economic research and U.N. data that you may want to use as well.
Porter, Eduardo. “Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.
Anti-Globalization Article 4:“Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism”
This scholarly article offers a unique approach to globalization because it analyzes the issue from an educational, rather than an economic, perspective. The author, Tyler Evans-Tokaryk, a Writing Specialist and Senior Lecturer at University of Toronto Mississauga, provides a comprehensive study of global plagiarism perspectives and how Western universities must evolve in their approach to the issue. Tokaryk also includes a full bibliography of his sources that could be useful for your own research.
Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler. “Academic integrity, remix culture, globalization: A Canadian case study of student and faculty perceptions of plagiarism.” Across the Disciplines 11.2 (2014): 24 Nov. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015
Anti-Globalization Article 5:“Behind The Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism”
In this scholarly article, Audrey Kurth Cronin discusses that with increased globalization comes increased global terrorism. While much of this article focuses on the negative aspect of terrorist actions across the world and the ease of access terrorists now possess through media and travel outlets, Cronin effectively structures her argument toward a solution. She recognizes that globalization has its merits, but also notes that major problems in globalization must be solved. Many credible sources appear in the footnotes, so be sure to check those out!
Cronin, Audrey Kurth. “Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism.” International Security 27.3 (2003): 30-58. Web. 28 May 2015.
I’ve given you a head-start with these articles, but there are plenty out there for you to discover! Many of these will be great for your research, but remember to use the CRAAP test if you’re unsure about an article’s quality.
Articles like those above can be found by using Google. But if you’re a university student, you probably have access to tons of great scholarly databases, such as JSTOR or ProjectMuse, through your school. Get your tuition-money’s worth and check these out! If you’re not familiar with online databases, seek help from your friendly university librarian.
Also read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper.
Once you’ve collected enough articles to support your ideas about the pros and cons of globalization, you’ll be ready to outline and start that first essay draft. Just be sure that you include the following in your paper:
Still wondering what a pros and cons essay looks like? Here are some examples from our sample essay database:
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