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Aurangabad
Metropolis

Bibi ka maqbara


Seal
Nickname(s): City of Gates, Tourist Capital of Maharashtra

Aurangabad

Coordinates: 19°53′N75°19′E / 19.88°N 75.32°E / 19.88; 75.32Coordinates: 19°53′N75°19′E / 19.88°N 75.32°E / 19.88; 75.32
CountryIndia
StateMaharashtra
RegionMarathwada
DistrictAurangabad
EstablishedA.D. 1610
Founded byMalik Ambar
Government
 • Divisional Commissioner of AurangabadPurshottam Bhapkar
 • Police Commissioner of AurangabadYashaswi Yadav (IPS)
 • MayorBapu Ghadamode
 • MLAs
Area[1]
 • Metropolis139 km2 (54 sq mi)
Elevation568 m (1,864 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Metropolis1,575,116
 • RankIndia : 34th
Maharashtra : 5th
 • Density11,000/km2 (29,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[3]1,589,376
Demonym(s)Aurangabadi, Aurangabadkar
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN431 001
Telephone code0240
Vehicle registrationMH 20
LanguagesMarathi
WebsiteAurangabad.nic.in

Aurangabad ( pronunciation (help·info) is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki.[4] The administrative headquarters of the Aurangabad Division or Marathwada region, Aurangabad is titled "The City of Gates" and the strong presence of these can be felt as one drives through the city. The city was founded in 1610 by Malik Amber. Aurangabad is the Tourism Capital of Maharashtra.[5][6] Aurangabad is the fifth largest city in Maharashtra.

History

Main article: History of Aurangabad, Maharashtra

Khadki was the original name of the village which was made a capital city by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam, Shah of Ahmadnagar. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a populous and imposing city. Malik Ambar died in 1626.[7] He was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan, who changed the name of Khadki to Fatehnagar. With the capture of Daulatabad by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals.[8]

In 1653 when Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign.

In 1724, Asif Jah, a Turkic general and Nizam al-Mulk of the Mughals in the Deccan region, decided to secede from the crumbling Mughal Empire, with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan and decided to make Aurangabad his capital. His son and successor, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763.[9] In 1795, the city came under the Maratha rule, following the Maratha victory in the Battle of Kharda,[10] along with an indemnity of 30 million rupees paid by Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad to the Marathas. However, Maratha rule lasted only eight years before the city came under the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, under the protection of the British East India Company, following the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. During the period of the British Raj, the city was known as Aurungábád.[11]

Aurangabad was a part of the PrincelyState of Hyderabad during the British Raj, until its annexation into the Indian Union after the Indian Independence in 1947, and thereafter a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956. In 1956 it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state.[12]

Geography and climate

Climate data for Aurangabad
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)28.7
(83.7)
31.1
(88)
35.0
(95)
37.4
(99.3)
38.0
(100.4)
34.0
(93.2)
28.0
(82.4)
27.6
(81.7)
30.0
(86)
31.3
(88.3)
30.0
(86)
28.0
(82.4)
31.59
(88.87)
Average low °C (°F)9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
15.0
(59)
19.4
(66.9)
22.8
(73)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
20.3
(68.5)
20.0
(68)
17.0
(62.6)
12.0
(53.6)
9.0
(48.2)
16.65
(61.97)
Average precipitation mm (inches)11.3
(0.445)
2.7
(0.106)
5.6
(0.22)
3.9
(0.154)
26.2
(1.031)
132.2
(5.205)
157.9
(6.217)
152.7
(6.012)
146.0
(5.748)
62.1
(2.445)
26.8
(1.055)
12.0
(0.472)
739.4
(29.11)
Source: India Meteorological Department (1952-2000)[13]

The co-ordinates for Aurangabad are N 19° 53' 47" – E 75° 23' 54". The city is surrounded by hills on all directions.

Climate Classification: Aurangabad features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification.

Temperature: Annual mean temperatures in Aurangabad range from 17 to 33 °C, with the most comfortable time to visit in the winter – October to February. The highest maximum temperature ever recorded was 46 °C (114 °F) on 25 May 1905. The lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 2 February 1911. In the cold season, the district is sometimes affected by cold waves in association with the eastward passage of western disturbances across north India, when the minimum temperature may drop down to about 2 °C to 4 °C (35.6 °F to 39.2 °F).[14]

Rainfall: Most of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September.Thunderstorms occur between November to April. Average annual rainfall is 710 mm.The city is often cloudy during the monsoon season and the cloud cover may remain together for days. The daily maximum temperature in the city often drops to around 22 °C due to the cloud cover and heavy rains.

Geology

The entire area is covered by the Deccan Traps lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age. The lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits along the Kham and Sukhana river. The basaltic lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap is the only major geological formation occurring in Aurangabad. The lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The upper layers consist of vesiculara and amygdaloidalzeoliticbasalt while the bottom layer consists of massive basalt.The lava flows are individually different in their ability to receive as well as hold water in storage and to transmit it. The difference in the productivity of groundwater in various flows arises as a result of their inherent physical properties such as porosity and permeability. The groundwater occurs under water table conditions and is mainly controlled by the extent of its secondary porosity i.e. thickness of weathered rocks and spacing of joints and fractures. The highly weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water yielding zones. The soil is mostly formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black, shallow and calcareous types having different depths and profiles.[15]

Demographics

Population growth 
CensusPop.
190110,000

191134,902249.0%
192136,8765.7%
193136,8700.0%
194150,92438.1%
195166,63630.9%
196197,70146.6%
1971165,25369.1%
1981301,00082.1%
1991592,00096.7%
2001902,17952.4%
20111,421,87957.6%
Source:Census of India[3][16]

2011 census has put the city of Aurangabad in million plus metro club of India. The city municipal area had total population of 1,171,260 while population including metropolitan area had a population 1,413,711. It is the 5th most populous city in Maharashtra after Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur and Nashik. 52.5% of Aurangabad's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. The Marathi and Hyderabadi Muslim communities are the two largest ethnic groups in the city.

Hinduism is the majority religion in Aurangabad city at 51.07% with 600,183 followers. Islam is the second most popular religion in the city with 361,817 people (30.79%) following it. Buddhism is followed by 178,307 people (15.17%), Christianity is followed by 10,060 people (0.86%), Jainism by 19,073 (1.62%), Sikhism by 3,427 (0.29%). Around 0.04% stated 'other Religion', and about 0.15% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[17]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Aurangabad

See also: Make In Maharashtra

As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Aurangabad is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing.

There is evidence to believe that Aurangabad was developed as a trading hub four centuries ago. Aurangabad is one of the fastest developing cities in Asia. It tops the chart among the developing cities. It lies on a major trade route that used to connect north-west India's sea and land ports to the Deccan region. In 2010, Aurangabad was in news for placing single largest order for Mercedes Benz cars in a single transaction in India — 150 Mercedes Benz cars worth Rs 65 crore.[18][19] Without a local Mercedes-Benz showroom and encountering an indifferent Mercedes-Benz dealer in the nearest city, a group of successful citizens pooled their orders and negotiated a record agreement with the firm. Soon after that, bulk purchase order of 101 BMW cars was also placed.

Industry

Electronics giant Videocon has its manufacturing facility in Aurangabad where it manufactures a range of home appliances. The city was a major silk and cotton textile production centre. A fine blend of silk with locally grown cotton was developed as Himroo textile. Paithani silk saris are also made in Aurangabad. With the opening of the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways in the year 1900 several ginning factories were started.[20] After 1960, Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) began acquiring land and setting up industrial estates. Aurangabad is now classic example of efforts of state government towards balanced industrialisation of state.[21]

Major Industrial areas of Aurangabad are Chikhalthana MIDC, Shendra MIDC and Waluj MIDC. A new industrial belt namely Shendra - Bidkin Industrial Park is being developed under DMIC.[22] The Maharashtra Centre For Entrepreneurship Development's main office is in Aurangabad.

Modern Retail Industry has made its presence felt in the forms of Malls. Prozone Mall spread over 1 million square feet is the biggest in the region. The industry is a big employment generator. Prozone alone created direct employment opportunities for 4000 people.[23]

Administration and politics

Local administration

Further information: Aurangabad Municipal Corporation

Aurangabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is the local civil body. It is divided into six zones. The Municipal Council was established in 1936, the Municipal Council area was about 54.5 km2. It was elevated to the status of Municipal Corporation from 8 December 1982, and simultaneously including eighteen peripheral villages, making total area under its jurisdiction to 138.5 km2 extended its limits.

The city is divided in 99 electoral wards called as Prabhag, and each ward is represented by a Corporator elected by the people from each ward. There are two Committees, General Body and Standing Committee headed by the Mayor and the Chairman respectively. AMC is responsible for providing basic amenities like drinking water, drainage facility, road, street lights, healthcare facilities, primary schools, etc. AMC collects its revenue from the urban taxes which are imposed on citizens. The administration is headed by the Municipal Commissioner; an I.A.S. Officer, assisted by the other officers of different departments.

State and central administration

Aurangabad division is one of the six administrative divisions of Maharashtra state in India. Aurangabad divisions almost completely coincides with the Marathwada region of Maharashtra.

Aurangabad contributes one seat to the Lok Sabha – Aurangabad (Lok Sabha constituency). The seat is currently held by Mr. Chandrakant Khaire, MP of the Shiv Sena party. In latest constituency arrangements made by,[24] Aurangabad will contribute one Loksabha seat, and three state assembly seats namely Aurangabad East, Aurangabad West and Aurangabad Central. The latest MLAs being – Aurangabad (East) – Atul Moreshwar Save(BJP), Aurangabad (Central) – Imtiyaz Jaleel (AIMIM) and Aurangabad (West) Sanjay Shirsat of Shiv-Sena.[25]

Transport

Air

Aurangabad Airport (Chikkalthana Airport) is an airport serving the city and has connecting flights to Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Tirupati and Thiruvananthapuram. In 2008, flights were made available to the people travelling to the Hajj pilgrimage.[26][27]

Rail

Aurangabad railway station is the major railway station under Nanded railway division.

Education

See also: Category:Education in Aurangabad, Maharashtra

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2014)

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU) is located in Aurangabad city. Most of the colleges of the region are affiliated to it. The University has 101 Colleges affiliated in Aurangabad and similarly 99 Colleges in Beed, 53 & 55 Colleges affiliated in Jalna & Osmanabad.[28] Aurangabad has schools run by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and private schools owned and run by trusts and individuals. Government Polytechnic Aurangabad is one of the polytecnique institutions in marathawada region.

Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad is an Autonomous engineering college in Maharashtra State of India. It was affiliated to the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University and was established in 1960. The construction of the college was started in 1957 and was completed in 1960.Marathwada Institute of Technology and Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College are two other prominent engineering colleges in Aurangabad.

Maulana Azad College of Arts and Science was founded in 1963 by Dr.Rafiq Zakaria, who formed a trust called Maulana Azad Education Society to manage the affairs. The College is affiliated to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University of Aurangabad.

National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology Aurangabad(NIELIT Aurangabad) is located inside the Dr B.A.M. university campus. It is a central government engineering institute under the Ministry of Communication & Information Technology Government of India. It offers DEPM, B.TECH(Electronics Engineering), M.tech(Electronics Design Technology), P.hd and short term courses.

Institute of Hotel Management, Aurangabad, is affiliated to University of Huddersfield. Students have internships in the Vivanta, Taj in Aurangabad which is a 5 star hotel[29] Aurangabad is educational hub of Marathwada.

Aurangabad Cantonment

Main article: Aurangabad cantonment

Aurangabad Cantonment is the greenest area of the Aurangabad city. It also has a nine-hole golf course, the only such course in Marathwada region. Aurangabad Cantonment was formed in 1819 with European officers to train the Nizam Army. In 1903, a treaty was signed between British and the Nizam, and it was decided to establish a proper cantonment. Today the cantonment is spread across 2,584 acres (10.46 km2) with civil population of 19,274 as per 2001 census.[30]

Tourist attractions

Main articles: Tourism in Marathwada and Tourist attractions in Aurangabad, Maharashtra

Aurangabad is a very historical city along with its surrounding towns and villages. It receives tourists and surveyors from all over the world.

  • Ellora and Ajanta Caves: The world-famous Ellora and Ajanta Caves are situated at 29 km (18 mi) and 107 km (66 mi) respectively from Aurangabad city and come within the Aurangabad district. The Ellora Caves consist of 34 caves built between 5th and 10th century CE under the patronage of Rashtrakuta Dynasty. They represent the epitome of Indian rock cut architecture.[31] The Ajanta Caves are also 30 rock cut caves around a gorge, built by the Satavahana, Vakataka and Chalukya dynasties between 2nd and 5th century CE.[32] They contain the rarest and finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, especially painting.[33] Both the Ellora and Ajanta Caves are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Bibi Ka Maqbara: The Aurangabad city is known for the Bibi Ka Maqbara situated about 3 km (2 mi) from the city which is the burial mausoleum of Emperor Aurangzeb's wife, Dilras Banu Begum also known as Rabia-ud-Daurani. It is an imitation of the Taj Mahal at Agra and due to its similar design, it is popularly known as the "Taj of the Deccan".[34]
  • Daulatabad Fort: The Daulatabad Fort (aka Devgiri Fort) located about 15 km (9 mi) north-west of Aurangaabd was one of the most powerful forts during the medieval period. Built in the 12th century CE by the Yadava Dynasty, it's a citadel that was never conquered by any military force. The British called it the "best fort of India", due to its extraordinary military strength. Built on a 200 metre high conical hill, the fort was defended by moats and trenches running around the hill at its foot besides the most complex and intricate defence system. The fort has two fixed massive canons which can be pivoted. The fortifications comprise three encircling walls with bastions.[35]
  • Panchakki: The 17th-century water mill (Panchakki) situated at a distance of 1 km from the city is known for its underground water channel, which traverses more than 8 km. to its source away in the mountains. The channel culminates into an artificial waterfall that powers the mill.
  • Gateways: The city is also famous for the 52 gateways built during Mughal era which gives it the name of "City of Gates".[36]
  • Aurangabad Caves: These are situated at a distance of 5 km (3 mi), nestled amidst the hills are 12 Buddhist caves dating back to 3 A.D. Of particular interest are the Tantric influences evident in the iconography and architectural designs of the caves.
  • Grishneshwar Temple: It is one of the 12 jyotirlinga shrines in India. The present temple was built by Ahilyabhai Holkar in 18th century CE. The structure is a unique example of Bhoomija architecture with a Maratha style influence.[37]
  • Salim Ali Lake & Bird Sanctuary: Popularly known as Salim Ali Talab is located in the northern part of the city near Delhi Darwaza, opposite Himayat Bagh. During the Mughal period it was known as Khiziri Talab. It has been renamed after the great ornithologist and naturalist Salim Ali. It also has a bird Sanctuary and a garden maintained by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation.

Culture and cuisine

Culture

See also: Urdu in Aurangabad

The culture of Aurangabad city is heavily influenced by Hyderabad. The old city still retains the cultural flavour and charms of Muslim culture of Hyderabad. Its influence is reflected in the language and cuisine of the locals. Although Marathi and Urdu are the principal languages of the city, they are spoken in Dakhni – Hyderabadi Urdu dialect.[40][better source needed]

Cuisine

Aurangabadi food is much like Mughlai or Hyderabadi cuisine with its fragrant pulao and Biryani. Meat cooked in fresh spices and herbs is a speciality, as are the delectable sweets. The local cuisine is a blend of Mughlai and Hyderabadi cuisine, with an influence of the spices and herbs of the Marathwada region.[44]

Naan Qalia is a dish that is associated with Aurangabad in India. It is a concoction of mutton and a variety of spices. Naan is the bread made in tandoor (Hot furnace) while Qalia is a mixture of mutton and various spices.

Tahri or Tahari is similar to pulao–Biryani and is very popular in Aurangabad and Marathwada. Tahri is prepared by adding the meat to the rice, as opposed to traditional Biryani where the rice is added to the meat.[45][better source needed]

Aurangabad / Marathwada / Dakhni cuisine is a blend of the Puneri and the Hyderabadi cuisine (which beautifully blends the use of typical South Indian ingredients such as curry leaves, tamarind and coconut into their celebrated culinary practices).[46]

Sports

International-standard cricket stadium at Aurangabad District Cricket Association Stadium is under counstruct. Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College Sports Complex is a sports complex with in Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College mainly used by college sports event.

Aurangabad is home to the national bandy association.[47]

Mashru and Himroo

Aurangabad is famous for Mashru and Himroo fabrics made of cotton and silk with the lustre of satin. Himru is an age-old weaving craft, and was originally known as kum khuab.

  • Himroo: The fabric is said to have originated in Persia, though not conclusively proved, Himroo is associated with the times of Mohammad Tughlaq who ruled in the 14th century. When Mohammad Tughlaq shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad many weavers came and settled here. During the exodus the weavers instead of returning to Delhi stayed back here. During the reign of Malik Ambar, the city's fame attracted many people from far and wide. During the Mughal rule under Aurangzeb's governorship, Auarangabad the capital and the weavers became more prosperous. The only industry in Aurangabad allured hundreds of craftsman. Members of the royal family and an elite few used the famous Aurangabad Himroo. Himroo weaving is very characteristic and distinctive. Fabrics and shawls from Aurangabad are much in demand for their unique style and design.[48]
  • Bidriware : A unique form of gold and silver inlays on copper is preserved here from ancient Persian traditions that have been sustained in the Deccan. This ancient art still finds expression in the modern items like cufflinks, nameplates and more. Typical bidri items include plates, bowls, vases, ashtrays, trinket boxes, huqqa bases and jewellery.
  • Kaghzipura: A place situated near Daulatabad made first handmade paper in India after the technology was brought here by Mongol invaders.Some Historians say it was the first mill in entire Asia to produce paper. Interestingly this paper was first used to print the Quran.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf
  2. ^http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/360-aurangabad.html
  3. ^ ab"Census of India : Provisional Population Totals Paper 2 of 2011 : India (Vol II)". 
  4. ^Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 174. 
  5. ^"Aurangabad". Forbes. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  6. ^"Maharashtra Tourism Minister declared Pune as the tourism capital of the state". 
  7. ^Qureshi Dulari, "Tourism Potential in Aurangabad," p.6
  8. ^Sohoni, Pushkar (2015). Aurangabad with Daulatabad, Khuldabad, and Ahmadnagar. Aurangabad: Deccan Heritage Foundation; Jaico. ISBN 9788184957020. 
  9. ^Govt of Maharashtra – Aurangabad GazetteerArchived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^"Hyderabad Rulers with their Coinage details". Chiefacoins.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  11. ^" Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Aurungábád". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 99. 
  12. ^Green, Nile (2004). "Stories of saints and sultans remembering history at the sufi shrines of Aurangabad"(PDF). Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  13. ^"Climate of Aurangabad"(PDF). India meteorological department. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  14. ^Maharashtra government web siteArchived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^Aher K.R. 'Groundwater Quality studies of Chikalthana area of Aurangabad', Ph.D Thesis, Dr.B.A.M.University, Aurangabad(Maharashtra State), India,2012 page-38
  16. ^[Govt of Maharashtra Aurangabad Gazetteer. Section – The People (population)]
  17. ^"Aurangabad City Population Census 2011 - Maharashtra". 
  18. ^(Mercedes Benz gets order of 150 cars worth Rs 65 crore from Aurangabad).
  19. ^(Biggest Mercedes-Benz deal in a day in Aurangabad). Archived 20 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^"Hyderabad" by Mirza Mehdy Khan, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Government Printing Press, Calcutta, 1909.
  21. ^TOI (12 April 2009). "History revisited at Aurangabad". The Times Of India. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  22. ^Ashar, Sandeep (15 October 2011). "Share on emailShare on printShare on redditMore Sharing Services Four mega industrial towns". THE TIMES OF INDIA. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  23. ^Prozone.
  24. ^Election Commission of IndiaArchived 13 June 2009 at WebCite
  25. ^Map of Aurangabad Loksabha and Assembly seats
  26. ^"Direct Haj flights from Aurangabad". Daily News and Analysis. 22 November 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  27. ^Aurangabad Airport AAI website
  28. ^"List of Affiliated Colleges and Institutions". 
  29. ^"National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology, Aurangabad". Aurangabad.nielit.gov.in. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  30. ^"Aurangabad". Aurangabad Cantonment Board. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  31. ^"Ellora Caves, Maharashtra - Archaeological Survey of India".
Ahilyabai Holkar Chauk, Station Road, Aurangabad
Bombay High Court Aurangabad Bench, ITC Welcomgroup's The Rama International, Ajanta Ambassador & Cidco Town Center – Aerial view
Idol of Lord Shri Parshvanath at Kachner

The Village Accountant (variously known as Patwari, Talati, Patel, Karnam, Adhikari, Shanbogaru,"Patnaik" etc.) is an administrative government position found in rural parts of the Indian sub-continent. The office and the officeholder are called the patwari in Telangana, Bengal, Rajasthan, North India and in Pakistan while in Sindh it is called tapedar. The position is known as the karnam in Andhra Pradesh, patnaik in Orissa or adhikari in Tamil Nadu, while it is commonly known as the talati in Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The position was known as the kulkarni in Northern Karnataka and Maharashtra. The position was known as the shanbogaru in South Karnataka.

Generally the Brahmins were appointed in these posts across India (especially in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa) with few exceptions where people from Kayasth community were also appointed (in Uttar Pradesh).

Until the 1980s, this post was by default given to Niyogi Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh. Later the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh N. T. Rama Rao abolished the system.

History[edit]

The Patwar system was first introduced during the short but eventful rule of Sher Shah Suri and the system was further enhanced by Emperor Akbar. The British colonial era made minor amendments but continued the system.

In 1814, legislation was enacted requiring all villages to maintain an accountant (talati) as an official agent of the government.[1] The Kulkarni Watan was abolished in 1918 and paid talatis from all castes were appointed to the new office of the Talati. In some cases, the talatis were the oppressed castes and the abolishing of the Kulkarni Watan system was viewed as a progressive move.[2]

The word is derived from the Sanskrit root tal which means to accomplish a vow, to establish or to fix.[3]

Talati[edit]

Talati is a word in the Gujarati and Marathi languages of India. It is used to denote the office of the Talati in rural parts of the Indian states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka. The office and its holder are both called Talatis. Bearers of the office have adapted this as their family last name. The duties of a Talati include maintaining crop and land records (record of rights) of the village, collection of tax revenue, collection of irrigation dues.[4][5][6] The post of the Talati replaced that of the Kulkarni which no longer exists in Gujarat and Maharashtra.[7] The duties of a talati are performed in other states of India under a different title, for example the talati is called a Patwari in Andhra Pradesh.[7] Originally a land holding clerk, the talati is now a government appointed paid official.[5][8] A Patil (Patel in the state of Gujarat) is from outside the village and assists the Talati in collecting revenue. It has been alleged that the records maintained by the talati do not reflect the actual position on the ground because the talati did not take into account the tribal custom of using the name of the adult male member of the family for land possession.[9]

Amongst the administration, the talati has the closest connection with the village people.[10] The talati is generally in charge of a group of villages called a saza and they are required to reside in that saza unless they get approval from the Collector to reside outside of the saza. However the majority of the talatis were found to be in violation of this rule.[11] The talati belongs to the Brahmin caste in most cases[6] and is generally looked up to in the villages because of being a representative of the government.[12]

Duties of the Talati[edit]

In 1814, duties of the talati included preserving village records, monitoring daily activities, and gathering information about individuals, including mukhis and village elites.[1]

In 1882, the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency records the duty of the talati as that of a village accountant with a charge of about 8-10 villages. The talati's pay scale for this was £12 - £18 (Rs. 120 – Rs. 180) per year. The talati was supposed to live anywhere within these villages and was supposed to visit each village every month to understand people's needs. The talati then reported these needs to the sub-divisional manager in the sub-divisional office. Additionally, the Talati was also required to give each landholder an account showing the landholders dues.[10] In August 1891 the pay of the talati is recorded as being poor.[13]

In 1884, Elphinstone says that the duties of the talati are excellent in promoting the advantage of the government but they have a tendency to extinguish the authority of the Patel and recommends that care should be taken to bring talati's power within its natural bounds to remove interference from the duties of the Patel.[12] The appointment of the talati was viewed negatively by village chiefs who felt he assumed the characteristic of a representative of the government, receiving complaints. The talati was appointed when the Kulkarni or Watandar, the hereditary accountant is absent from the village or district scene.[14] The talati is also involved in collecting data related to census. This is an annual activity occurring after the Mrig each year.[15]

The talati's peers are called the patwari in Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Northern India, and karnam in Tamil Nadu.[7][14]

Patwari[edit]

"Patwari" redirects here. For the language spoken in Pakistan, see Potwari.

Patwari or Patel are terms used in India and Pakistan for a land record officer at sub-division or Tehsil level. As the lowest state functionary in the Revenue Collection system, his job encompasses visiting agricultural lands and maintaining a record of ownership and tilling (girdawary). Due to their primary base in rural areas, where literacy and wealth is low, they yield a larger-than-life influence in the local community and are notorious for demanding bribe and changing land records at will. With the computerization of land records, their ability to manipulate records has been limited. The Government of India has developed a software system called Patwary Information System (PATIS) which was deployed in at least two districts as of 2005 with deployment at the Tehsil level underway.[16] Patwary reports to Tehsildar or a chief clerk of Tehsils land records.[17] The Government of Punjab (Pakistan) as well develop a Land Software with the name of Land Revenue Management Information System (LRMIS).

The Patwari can wield significant power and influence with even feudal lords seeking his favour.[18] There have been cases of corrupt patwaris escaping punishment due to their position and political connections.[19] The Patwaris are equivalent to karnams in the Telugu Brahmin sect, or Patel, a sect of Reddys and Munnuru Kapu in Telangana were also appointed as Patels, Patwaris, Police Patels.

Many holders of the title now use Patwary as their family last name in Karnataka and a few other parts of South India. The peer of a patwari in Maharashtra and Karnataka is the talati.

all the land record system for jamabandi is updated on the website of apnakhata.com of the Rajasthan state (india). Land owner can get the copy of the his record from the website directly.

Duties of Patwari[edit]

A patwari has three chief duties:

  1. The maintenance of record of the crop grown at every harvest.
  2. The keeping of the record of rights up to date by the punctual record of mutations.
  3. The account of preparation of statistical returns embodying the information derived from the harvest inspections, register of mutation and record of rights.[17]

Documents related to Patwari[edit]

The patwari system has unique and old terminologies and nomenclature for its documents. Following are some main documents related to patwaris:

  1. Fard: A document showing details of ownership about a piece of land as per in the books of patwary.---- It should be noted that Fard which is kept with the patwari is the record of the revenue—which keeps details of the person who is paying revenue to the government for that land—It is not the final evidence for establishing the ownership of a property—At best the Fard can be additional piece of evidence which along with other proofs can establish the title of a person upon a property. Fard is just like entries in municipal records in the urban areas—as house tax can be given to the government for a piece of land in urban area even by a tenant—but that does not mean that by paying house tax and entering as the payer of the house tax in the municipal records the tenant can ever become the owner of the property as in that case the tenant is only securing his own interest [possession]in the land—but that does not give him ownership of the land. Likewise with the Fard where the person whose name is mentioned in the Fard may be or may not be the owner of the property. But still, the person whose name is mentioned in the Fard is bound to have some interest in the land which can be in the leaseholder or mortgagee or something like that—which depends upon the facts and circumstances of each case. --- It was held in the case of Lokesh Sanyal Vs. State of M.P.- Judgment was given by the Madhya Pradesh High Court- in the year- 2007—and published in the Law Journal—Recent Civil Reports—2007 Vol. No.5 RCR [Civil] 636 [M.P.] [Gwalior Bench]-- Relevancy of record of Municipal Corporation—Municipal Corporation cannot decide the question of Title—Its words containing entries are maintained for a fiscal purpose like Property Tax/House Tax Etc.
  2. Pertt Patwar: A copy of record showing the detail of transfer record. (You can pronounce Pratt as Per-at )
  3. Pertt Sarkar: When a Partt Patwar is attested it is called Pertt Sarkar.
  4. Girdawary
  5. Jamabandi: Also called B1 / khatouni kishtwar. It consists of the record of landholders and Land revenue as per every Khata private as well as Govt. Land. It is prepared by using Khasra.

Girdawary[edit]

Under the Indian land record system, Girdawary is the record of land cultivation. It records the crop and ownership of the crop. The record is maintained by the Patwary in Andhra Pradesh, by the Talati in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka and other similar title holders in other states of India. The Government of India has developed a software system called Patwari Information System (PATIS) that includes girdawary in its scope.[16] PATIS was deployed in at least two districts as of 2005 with deployment at the Tehsil level underway.

Local landlords must ensure that Girdawary stays in their name, otherwise; if someone else is shown as cultivating the land for an extended period of time, they can claim possession of the land, resulting in a dispute of land ownership.

Some terms of relevance are:[14]

Several other terms are used. Some of them are listed here: Theka, Khevat, Kilabandi, Registry, Fard, Mushtarka, Chhijraa, Degree, Decree, Takseem, Halfia Bayaan, Mutation.

Jamabandi[edit]

A jamabandi is a term used in India meaning "rights of records" and refers to land records.

These records are documents which are maintained for each village within its Tehsil.[20][21] It contains the name of the owners, an area of cultivation/land, shares of owners and other Rights. It is revised after a certain period of time for e.g. every 5 years in the states such as Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.

After it is prepared by Patwari (Govt. official who keeps and maintains Rights of Records"District administration". ) it is attested by Revenue Officer of that division. Two copies of jamabandi are made, one is kept in Government's Record room and other is kept with Patwari. All changes in title/interests of the revenue estate coming into the notice of Revenue Authorities are duly reflected in the Jamabandi according to set procedures.

In many states like Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Punjab land records have been computerised."Land records". Government of Himachal Pradesh. "Land records". Government of Harayana.  In these states, Jamabandi is prepared using software, and it is later checked by the patwari for errors. After it is corrected or approved by the patwari, a final printout is taken which is later attested by the Revenue officer. In these states, Jamabandis are also made available on websites.

Lal Dora, is a term that introduced by British Raj in 1908, is a red line drawn on the maps delineating the village population from the nearby agricultural land in the revenue records and villagers can build houses without building by-laws without the mandatory change in land use (CLU) permission that would otherwise be needed to convert agricultural land to commercial or residential purpose.[22]

Jareeb[edit]

also called chain in English In India Madhya Pradesh there are many types of chain / jareeb used to measure the Land Area

  1. Gwalior Jareeb = 75 feet long, 100 kari, each kari is 9 inches long
  2. Indore jareeb = 66 feet long, 100 kari it is also called Gantree Jareeb
  3. Metric jareeb = 20 meters long, 100 kari, 20 cm long
  4. shahjahani jareeb = 55 gaj (165 feet) long' 200 kari, but in use it is half 100 kari & 82.5 feet long.

Units of measurement[edit]

Some of the key land measurement units used by the village accountant are given below:

  1. 8 Kanals = 1 Acre
  2. Acre is also called quilla ghumaon
  3. 20 marlas = 1 kanal
  4. 160 marlas = 1 acre
  5. 1 marla = 9 square karams
  6. 1 marla = 272.25 square feet
  7. 1 karam = 66" 57"
  8. 1 acre = 2 bigas[citation needed]
  1. 1 acre = 1 and 3/5 bigas[citation needed]
  2. 1 Biswa = 440 sq. Feet
  3. 1 Beegha = 20 Biswa / 22500 sq. Feet (In Rajasthan it is 165X165 square feet i.e. 27225)
  4. 1 Beegha = 209 Are ( Gwalior Chain)
  5. 1 Biswansi = 22 sq. feet.
  6. 1 Biswa = 20 Biswansi
  7. 1 Kiswasi = 2.8125 sq. Feet.
  8. 1 Guntha = 121 Sq Yard.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abChaturvedi, Vinayak (2007). Peasant pasts: history and memory in western India. University of California Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-520-25078-9. 
  2. ^Naqvi, K. A. (1978). The Indian economic and social history review. 15. HighWire Press. p. 15. 
  3. ^Monier-Williams, Sir Monier (1963). A Sanskrit-English dictionary. Motilal Banarasidas. p. 440. ISBN 81-208-3105-5. 
  4. ^Heredia, Susana (1972). A patriot for me: a biographical study of Sardar Patel. p. 239. 
  5. ^ abIndia Office of the Registrar General (1962). Census of India, 1961, Volume 5, Part 6, Issue 6. 5. 
  6. ^ abFukutake, Tadashi; Ōuchi, Tsutomu; Nakane, Chie (1964). The socio-economic structure of the Indian village: surveys of villages in Gujarat and West Bengal. Institute of Asian Economic Affairs. pp. 76–77. 
  7. ^ abcShukla, J. D (1976). State and district administration in India. pp. xii, 63. 
  8. ^Ātre, Trimbaka Nārāyaṇa. The village cart: translation of T.N. Atre's Gaav gada. pp. 65, 78. ISBN 978-81-7154-863-7. 
  9. ^Trivedi, Harshad R. Tribal land systems: land reform measures and development of tribals. p. 154. 
  10. ^ abGazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Thana. VIII. 1882. p. 573. 
  11. ^Dantwala, Mohanlal Lalloobhai; Shah, C. H. (1971). Evaluation of Land Reforms: General report. pp. 167, 179–180. 
  12. ^ abElphinstone, Mountstuart; Forrest, Sir G. W. (George William) (1884). Writings of Mountstuart Elphinstone. pp. 490, 479. 
  13. ^Shelly, C. E. (1892). Transactions of the Seventh International Congress of Hygiene and Demography. 11. p. 116. 
  14. ^ abcBaden-Powell, Baden Henry (1896). The Indian village community: examined with reference to the physical, ethnographic, and historical condition of the provinces; chiefly on the basis of the revenue-settlement records and district manuals. pp. 598, 735–736. 
  15. ^Baines, J. A. (1882). Imperial census of 1881: Operations and results in the Presidency of Bombay including Sind. I. p. 260. 
  16. ^ abHabibullah, Wajahat; Ahuja, Manoj, eds. (2005). Land Reforms in India: Computerisation of Land Records. 10. Sage Publications India. pp. 42, 195, 197–198, 202. ISBN 978-0-7619-3347-2. 
  17. ^ ab"District administration - Naib Tehsildar". 
  18. ^"Power of the patwary". Dawn. 
  19. ^"Corrupt Patwarys go scot-free : ACE helpless". Dawn. 
  20. ^Jambandi Haryana, Haryana Revenue Department.
  21. ^Belgaum Jamabandi.
  22. ^What is Lal Dora, Daily Pioneer, 11 June 2013.

External links[edit]